突破考研英语高分之剖析状语从句

2019-11-15 03:47栏目:银河国际棋牌娱乐
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  1.There is a virtual limit on how long we can hope to remain alive,however lucky and robust we are。

一到周末感觉工作堆积如山。

  [参考译文]  不管我们多么幸运,多么健壮,我们所希望的长寿年龄实际上是有限度的。

即使这样晚上还要王者农药开黑到转钟的我也是没救了。

  [结构分析] 该句分为两部分:(There is a virtual limit on how long we can hope to remain alive, ) (however lucky and robust we are。),第一部分是主句,第二部分是however引导的让步状语从句;主句中on…alive是介词短语,作limit的后置定语,how引导的从句是介词on的宾语,该从句的主语是we,谓语是can hope to remain,表语是alive;让步状语从句的主语是we,谓语是are,表语是lucky and robust。这句话翻译时也要将从句提前,然后再译主句。

今天工作先总结一下句子的结构吧:

  [知识链接]  virtual实际的;remain保持;a limit on…对……有限制;alive活着的;lucky幸运的;robust健壮的。

英语句子的基本成分有六种:

  2. While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role, informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development。

主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语(attribute)和状语(adverbial).

银河国际棋牌娱乐,  [参考译文]  尽管正式的学习过程是由挑选出来担当此角色的教师来进行的,非正式的学习过程却是作为孩子成长的自然一部分而完成的。

英语常用句子结构:

  [结构分析]  该句可拆分为两部分,(While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role,) (informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development. ),第一部分是While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句;从句中,formal learning是主语,谓语是is transmitted,过去分词selected作teachers的后置定语,是不定式to perform this role作selected的目的状语;主句中,informal learning是主语,谓语是is acquired,介词短语as a natural part of a child's development作acquired的结果状语。

简单句

  [知识链接]  while尽管,虽然;formal learning正式的学习过程;transmit传递;perform从事,执行;informal learning非正式的学习过程;acquire获取;development发展(这里活译为“成长”)。

并列句

  3. While the roots of social psychology lie in the intellectual soil of the whole western civilization, its present flowering is recognized to be characteristically an American phenomenon。

复合句

  [参考译文]  虽然社会心理学根植于整个西方文明的知识土壤里,其今日的繁盛却被认为是典型的美国现象。  

简单句的五种基本类型

  [结构分析]  该句可拆分为两部分:(While the roots of social psychology lie in the intellectual soil of the whole western civilization,) (its present flowering is recognized to be characteristically an American phenomenon. ),第一部分是以While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句;从句中,主语是the roots,谓语是lie in,of social psychology是roots的后置定语,the intellectual…western civilization是介词in的宾语,of the whole western civilization是soil 的后置定语;主句的主语是its present flowering,其中的its指代前面的roots,谓语是is recognized,不定式to be...an American phenomenon作主语flowering的补足语。

①主系表结构

  [知识链接]  social psychology社会心理学;1ie in存在于……;intellectual知识的,知识分子;civilization文明;flowering开花(活译为“繁盛”);be recognized to be..。被看作……;characteristically典型地。

【I 主语】【am 谓语】【 a sports fan表语】.

  4. While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable, although competition is。

【It 主语】【 gets谓语】【 colder 表语】【 in winter 时间状语】.

  [参考译文]  虽然这种竞争会引发以他人利益为代价的领土扩张行动,因此也会引发冲突,但却不能认为类似于战争的国家间的冲突不可避免,尽管竞争是不可避免的。

②主 谓结构

  [结构分析]  该句可拆分为三大部分;(White it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, ) (it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable,) (although competition is. ),第一部分是While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句,第三部分是although引导的让步状语从句;第一部分的主语是山指代后面的that从句,实际上,While it is true that已形成固定结构,参见知识链接,that从句的主语是this competition,谓语是may induce,宾语是efforts,不定式to expand territory作efforts的后置定语,at the expense of others作expand的状语;and之后的lead to是谓语,与前面的induce并列,conflict是宾语;主句中的主语是it,指代后面的that从句,该从句的主语是conflict,谓语动词是is,表语是inevitable,复合形容词war-like作conflict的定语,among other nations作conflict的后置定语;第三部分although从句的主语是competition,谓语是is,表语是inevitable,承前省略了。该句的第二部分,即主句运用了被动语态,在翻译时要译为汉语的主动语态,这是常用的一条原则,因为英文多被动,汉语多主动。

They left.

  [知识链接]  while it is true that..。虽然……是(正确的);competition竞争;induce引发,导致;territory领土;领地;at the expense of…以……为代价;conflict冲突;war-like类似于战争的;inevitable不可避免的。

③主谓宾结构

  5. While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed, this need not always be the case。

【I 】【need】【 your help】

  [参考译文]  尽管迄今为止互联网似乎更加青睐国际社会中的发达领域,而非不太发达的领域,情形并不总是如此。

【It 】【depends on 】【the weather】

  [结构分析] 该句可拆分为两部分:(While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed,) (this need not always be the case. ),第一部分是While引导的让步状语从句,第二部分是主句;从句中,it是形式主语,指代后面的that从句,While it is true that已形成固定结构,参见知识链接,that从句主语是the Internet,谓语是seems,不定式to be..。作表语,介词短语over the less developed作favoring的状语;主句比较简单,主语是this,指代从句内容,谓语是need not always be,表语是the case。

④主谓双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语)结构

  [知识链接]  while it is true that尽管,虽然;to date迄今;favor青睐,重视;sector部门,领域;the international community国际社会。

【He 主语】【 gave谓语】【 me 间接宾语 】【 the book 直接宾语 】【yesterday 时间状语】.

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⑤主谓复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)结构

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【We主语】【 made谓语】【 him宾语】【 monitor宾语补足语】【 of our class.定语】

4、句子成分划分举例:

【I 主语】【live in 谓语】【Shijiazhuang 宾语】,【a city 同位语】【not far from Beijing 形容词短语, 后置定语】. 【简单句】

【The teachers 主语】【are 谓语】【enthusiastic and friendly表语】 and 【the class rooms 主语】【 are 谓语 】【amazing表语】.

and 连接的【并列句】

【I 主语】【don't think 谓语】【( that )I will be bored in Ms Shen's class 宾语从句

从句

  从句是相对于主句而言的,即它是从属于某一个主句,而不能单独作一个句子。在英语中,主要有三大从句,即名词性从句(包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句)、形容词性从句(即定语从句)、副词性从句(即状语从句,包括时间、条件、结果、目的、原因、让步、地点、方式等)。

  主语从句用作主语,如::

  That the earth is round is true. 地球为圆的是真实的。

  宾语从句用作宾语。如:

  Do you know where he lives?

  表语从句用作表语,如:

  My opinion is that you should not go alone. 我的意见是你不应单独前往。

  同位语从句用于解释说明前面的名词。如:

  The fact that the earth is round is true. 地球是圆的的事实是真实的。(that从句用于解释说明the fact)

  定语从句相当于一个形容词,用于修饰前面的名词。如:

  The student who answered the question was John. 回答问题的学生是John.

  状语从句相当于一个副词,如:

  When it rains, I usually go to school by bus. 天下雨时,我通常坐公共汽车上学。(时间状语)

  If he comes tomorrow, you will see him. 如果他明天来,你就可以看见他。(if 引导的条件状语从句,其结构为:if +状语从句,+主句)。要注意在状语从句中有一个规则是“主将从现”,即主句是将来时,则从句要用一般现在时表示将来。

  He returned home to learn his daughter had just been engaged.他回家后得知女儿刚刚订婚了。(结果状语,结果状语只是仅限于learn(得知),find(发现),see,hear,to be told(被告知),make(使得)等具有界限含义的动词。)

  You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. 你必须大声说话,才能让所有人听到你说话。(目的状语,可以由that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等词引导。)

  Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey. 天气那么糟,旅行推迟了。 (原因状语从句,常用 because, since, as, for fear ( 恐怕 ), seeing that ( 既然 ) , now that (=since), considering that ( 考虑到 ) 等引导。)

  Though/Though he was worn out, (still) he kept on working. 虽然他已经精疲力竭了,但仍然继续工作。 (让步状语从句,引导的连词主要有以下这些:though, although, as; even if, even though; whether…or…; no matter+疑问词,疑问词-ever.)

  Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地方树很多。(地点状语从句,通常由where, wherever 引导。)

  As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。(方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。)

  主句和从句的划分方法是相同的。句子的成分从谓语动词处来划分比较容易。谓语动词前面的部分是主语,后面常接宾语,修饰谓语动词的是状语,修饰主语、宾语的是定语,若谓语是系动词,则系动词后的部分是表语。如:

  I am a teacher. 其中,I 是主语,am是谓语,a teacher 是表语。

  He likes playing football very much. 其中,he是主语,likes是谓语,playing football是宾语,very much是状语。

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